There are many different tubes that carry sperm. They can be blocked due to numerous causes, including infections, trauma or abnormal development, such as with cystic fibrosis or similar inherited conditions.
Hereditary disorders, such as Klinefelter’s syndrome (when a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one X and one Y) impacts the normal development of the male reproductive organs.
Problems with sexual intercourse
These can include trouble keeping or maintaining an erection sufficient for sex (erectile dysfunction), premature ejaculation, painful intercourse, anatomical abnormalities such as having a urethral opening beneath the penis (hypospadias), or psychological or relationship problems that interfere with sex.
Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medications, some ulcer drugs and certain other medications can impair sperm production and decrease male fertility.
Certain surgeries may prevent you from having sperm in your ejaculate, including vasectomy, inguinal hernia repairs, scrotal or testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries, and large abdominal surgeries performed for testicular and rectal cancers, among others. In most cases, surgery can be performed to either reverse these blockage or to retrieve sperm directly from the epididymis and testicles.
A digestive disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten, celiac disease can cause male infertility. Fertility may improve after adopting a gluten-free diet.
Some infections, such as gonorrhea or inflammation of the testicles, can affect sperm production or sperm health or can cause scarring that blocks the passage of sperm.